Ruby on Rails Gotcha: Asynchronous loading of Javascript in development mode

Everyone knows that you shouldn’t block page rendering by synchronously loading a big chunk of javascript in the head of your page right? Hence you might be tempted to change the default Javascript include tag, from this:

<%= javascript_include_tag 'application' %>

To this:

<%= javascript_include_tag 'application', async: true %>

Which makes perfect sense, when serving all Javascript in one big file, as is the case in production, meaning everything is defined at the same time. What about development though?

Well, in development rails is kind enough to let you work on individual Javascript files, which means it will recompile only as needed, when a single file is changed. To this effect, each file is included separately via their own script tag in the header. E.g:

<script src="/assets/jquery-87424--.js?body=1"></script><script src="/assets/jquery_ujs-e27bd--.js?body=1"></script><script src="/assets/turbolinks-da8dd--.js?body=1"></script><script src="/assets/somepage-b57f2--.js?body=1"></script><script src="/assets/application-628b3--.js?body=1"></script>

* Tags intentionally shortened in example.

There is a subtlety here that is quite important. All the scripts are loaded synchronously, one after the other, as specified by the order they appear in the application.js manifest. This means we’re guaranteed that jQuery, etc. is available once we get to our own scripts.

Now consider the the same scripts, but with async=true:

<script src="/assets/jquery-87424--.js?body=1" async="async"></script><script src="/assets/jquery_ujs-e27bd--.js?body=1" async="async"></script><script src="/assets/turbolinks-da8dd--.js?body=1" async="async"></script><script src="/assets/somepage-e23b4--.js?body=1" async="async"></script><script src="/assets/application-628b3--.js?body=1" async="async"></script>

Since all scripts in this case is loaded *asynchronously*, all previous guarantees are now lost, and we’ll very likely start seeing errors like this:

Uncaught ReferenceError: $ is not defined


The fix is simple though: Don’t load Javascript assets asynchronously in development mode!

Here’s one way of doing it:

<%= javascript_include_tag 'application', async: Rails.env.production? %>

Happy hacking!

Page specific Javascript in Rails 3


One of the neat features from Rails 3.1 and up is the asset pipeline:

The asset pipeline provides a framework to concatenate and minify or compress JavaScript and CSS assets. It also adds the ability to write these assets in other languages such as CoffeeScript, Sass and ERB.

This means that in production, you will have one big Javascript file and also one big CSS file. This reduces the number of request the browser has to make and generally loads the page faster.

In the case of Javascript concatenation however, it does bring about a problem. Executing code when the DOM has loaded is commonplace in most web applications today, but if everything is included in one big file, and more importantly the same file, for all actions on all controllers, how do you run code that is specific to just a single view?


Obviously there is more than one way of solving this problem, and rather unlike Rails, there doesn’t seem to be any “best practice” dictated. The closest I found is this excerpt from section 2 of the Rails Guide about the Asset Pipeline:

You should put any JavaScript or CSS unique to a controller inside their respective asset files, as these files can then be loaded just for these controllers with lines such as <%= javascript_include_tag params[:controller] %> or <%= stylesheet_link_tag params[:controller] %>.

And it isn’t even followed by an example, which seems more of an indication, that this isn’t something you should do at all.

Let’s start by this example nonetheless.

Per controller inclusion

By default Rails has only one top level Javascript manifest file, namely app/assets/javascripts/application.js which has the following content:

// This is a manifest file that'll be compiled into including all the files listed below.
// Add new JavaScript/Coffee code in separate files in this directory and they'll automatically
// be included in the compiled file accessible from
// It's not advisable to add code directly here, but if you do, it'll appear at the bottom of the
// the compiled file.
//= require jquery
//= require jquery_ujs
//= require_tree .

And this is included in the default layout with:

<%= javascript_include_tag "application" %>

N.B. When testing production on localhost, with e.g. rails s -e production, rails by default wont serve static assets, which application.js becomes after pre-compilation, so to avoid any problems when locally testing production, the following setting needs to be changed from false to true in config/environments/production.rb:

# Disable Rails's static asset server (Apache or nginx will already do this)
config.serve_static_assets = true

Now let’s say we have a controller, let’s call it ApplesController, and its corresponding Coffescript file, We might try to include it as per the Rails Guide suggestion like so:

<%= javascript_include_tag params[:controller] %>

And this will work just fine in development mode, but in production produce the following error:

ActionView::Template::Error (apples.js isn't precompiled):

To remedy this, we need to do a couple of things. First off we should remove the require_tree . part from application.js, so we don’t wind up including the same script twice. Just removing the equal sign is enough:

//  require_tree .

To avoid a name clash rename to something else, e.g. Then create a new manifest file named apples.js, which includes your coffeescript file:

//= require apples.controller

Lastly, the default configuration of Rails only includes and pre-compiles application.js, so we need to tell the pre-compiler to now also include apples.js. This is also in config/environments/production.rb. Uncomment the following setting, and change search.js to apples.js:

# Precompile additional assets (application.js, application.css, and all non-JS/CSS are already added)
config.assets.precompile += %w( apples.js )

Note that this is a match, so it could also be something like '*.js' in case you have more manifests, which would be the case for per controller inclusion.


The same concept as above could be extended to target individual actions/views of each controller, by having the actions be part of the manifest name. Individual javascript files could then be included like so:

<%= javascript_include_tag "#{params[:controller]}.#{params[:action}" %>

This makes an assumption that all actions on all controllers have a dedicated Javascript file. An assumption which most likely won’t be true in most cases. Another option could be an conditional include like so:

<%= yield :action_specific_js if content_for?(:action_specific_js %>

And then move the include tag to the specific views that need it.

Testing for existence of a page element or class

The DOM loaded event handler could look something like this:

jQuery ->
  if $('#some_element').length > 0
    // Do some stuff here

This could also be a class on body eg.:

jQuery ->
  if $('body.controller_name_action_name').length > 0
    // Do some stuff here

And then then the erb would be like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
  <%= stylesheet_link_tag    "application" %>
  <%= javascript_include_tag "application" %>
  <%= csrf_meta_tags %>
<body class="<%= "#{params[:controller]}_#{params[:action]}" %>">
<%= yield %>

Function encapsulation and on-page triggering

Instead of registering the handlers for DOM loaded, wrap the necessary code in a function that can be called later and then trigger that function directly in the respective view.

There is one thing we need to consider though. All Coffeescript sources for each controller get wrapped in it’s own closed scope, i.e this Coffeescript in

apples_index = ->
  console.log("Hello! Yes, this is Apples.")


    var a;
        return console.log("Hello! Yes, this is Apples.")

So in order for us to have a globally callable function, we must first expose it somehow. We can do this by attaching the function to the window object. Changing the above code like so:

window.exports ||= {}
window.exports.apples_index = ->
  console.log("Hello! Yes, this is Apples.")

If we insert this line in application.html.erb layout just before the closing body tag:

<!DOCTYPE html>                                                                           
  <%= stylesheet_link_tag    "application" %>                                             
  <%= javascript_include_tag "application" %>                                             
  <%= csrf_meta_tags %>                                                                   
<%= yield %>                                                                              
<%= yield :action_specific_js if content_for?(:action_specific_js) %>                     

We can now call the exposed function directly from our view like so:

<% content_for :action_specific_js do %>
<script type="text/javascript" language="javascript">
  $(function() { window.exports.apples_index(); });
<% end %>

Wrap up

Neither of these three examples is a “one-fit-all” solution I would say. Dividing up the Javascript source will start to make sense as soon as the Javascript codebase grows past a certain size. It might be interesting to test out, just how big that size is on a certain bandwidth, but I think that’s out of the scope for this post.

Given the fact that there isn’t really a defined best practice yet, perhaps the ruby community will come up with something better than the examples I presented here. In my opinion I think this is definitely something that could be better thought out.

Speeding up with parallel compression – pbzip2


Today I found myself in need of archiving some virtual machines, which is quite often rather large. The actual machine I was working on was a 4 core, 8 with HT, Xeon powerhouse and I was curious to see if there was any way to speed up compression times for this particular task.

Looking into things

Usually I always grab for my trusty old friend tar when creating archives and it does get the job done well. The thing about tar though, is that it is inherently single-threaded, so it doesn’t really matter how many CPU cores you throw at it.

After digging around a bit I found pbzip2. Description:

pbzip2 is a parallel implementation of the bzip2 block-sorting file compressor that uses pthreads and achieves near-linear speedup on SMP machines.

Sounds good right? I decided to try i out and measure the results. The size of the virtual machine was about 11G:

~$ du -hs *
11G     WinXP_32Bit

With just plain old tar it took about eight minutes:

~$ time tar zcvf winxp.tar.gz WinXP_32Bit
real    8m18.583s
user    6m47.089s
sys     0m15.129s

Not bad, but that is nothing compared to piping it through pbzip2:

~$ time tar -c WinXP_32Bit | pbzip2 -c > winxp.tar.bz2
real    4m54.942s
user    38m22.452s
sys     0m25.022s

Screenshots of htop to show the difference in cpu core utilisation:

Both resulting archives were of equal size, so the immediate benefit is purely speed:

~$ du -hs *
11G     WinXP_32Bit
6.2G    winxp.tar.bz2
6.2G    winxp.tar.gz

For good measure, I also timed the decompression speeds. Though there was still a gain in speed, it was not quite as significant as with compression:

~$ time tar zxvf winxp.tar.gz
real    5m8.636s
user    1m20.061s
sys     0m20.413s
~$ time pbzip2 -d winxp.tar.bz2
real    4m32.329s
user    13m15.814s
sys     0m19.057s

Some things might be said for a lot of other limiting factors such as disk read/write speed etc. Playing around with different settings of pbzip2 might also reveal greater performance boosts than this simple example, but by standard, it is now a welcome addition to my *nix toolkit.

Web based WIFI analyzer

Update Jan. 11th 2017: The web version of the stumbler is no longer available. An Android app is all that remains; available from Google Play store:

If you’ve ever felt that your wireless was a tad bit sluggish, one of the reasons might be because of interfering signals from your neighbours. Choosing the channel with the least amount of interference is thus the way to go, if you want a good strong signal.

Obviously there is a ton of WIFI analyzer programs out there, but who would bother if you could just open up your browser and do it without needing to install anything?

Enter Meraki Tools | WIFI STUMBLER:


Essential software for a fresh installation of Mac OS X

Following my recent decision to upgrade to Snow Leopard, being a bit old fashioned I decided a clean install would best quell my OCD. That of course means figuring out, what all those nifty little programs you’ve picked up along the way was.

Granted, this is rather a matter of personal preference, here is a short list of software I think is must have’s on a clean install of OS X:

  • Quicksilver
    Is a tool for accessing everything on your Mac incredibly fast. Just press Ctrl + Space, type a few letters of the title of the thing you need to find or open. Press Enter and voila.
  • Caffeine
    Is a little background application that allows you to toggle screen dimming. It puts a little icon in your task bar, that you just click whenever your want to watch a youtube clip or similar, where the screen dimming would otherwise be activated.
  • MacPorts
    Is a package manager for OS X, which gives you access to all kinds of open source software, that doesn’t ship with OS X. MacPorts relies on XCode being installed for a compiler, which can be installed from the OS X installation DVD. When it’s installed, using it is as simple as issuing the command:

    sudo port install

    Wait for it to finish compiling and installing and then you can run the program directly from your command-line.

  • Cyberduck
    A really good lightweight FTP client.
  • Adium
    For all your instant messaging needs. Handles most of the networks out there. No Skype support though.
  • Perian
    A collection of codecs that aren’t natively supported. If you want the preview feature in Finder to work, as well as QuickTime playback on non-supported file types, this is what you need.